What is pitch correction (pitch raising/pitch lowering)?

When a piano is tuned, the tuner first tunes one note, usually the A above middle C, to a standard such as a tuning fork or electronic tone. Typically, the standard is A vibrating at a frequency of 440 cycles per second. Then the rest of the piano is tuned relative to that pitch. When, because of neglect or humidity changes, this A on the piano is far from its correct pitch, this pitch must be reestablished and the piano roughly tuned relative to that pitch. This is called pitch correction or, in any particular case, pitch raising or pitch lowering. After the pitch correction, a fine tuning can be done. If a fine tuning is attempted at the same time as a pitch correction, the piano will usually end up out of tune because the strings have a tendency to revert part way to their old tension when a large change in tension is attempted at one time. Due to the extra work involved, tuners will usually charge extra for a pitch correction, which may sometimes even require a second visit to complete. In some climates or with some instruments, a pitch correction may be required with nearly every tuning.

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